Disease - is an impairment of the normal state or functioning of a part, organ, or system of an organism, resulting from various causes and characterized by an identifiable group of signs or symptoms. Acute diseases - are ones having a rapid onset, producing severe symptoms and following a short course, chronic disorders - having slow progress and long continuance or marked by frequent recurrence. Diseases are commonly classified according to cause.
External factors that produce disease are:
1. infectious agents, including both microscopic organisms (bacteria, viruses, and protozoans) and macroscopic
ones (fungi and various parasitic worms). Only infectious diseases can be transmitted – by humans, certain
animals and insects, and infected objects and substances (see communicable diseases).
2. chemical and physical agents (drugs, poisons, radiation), which can be encountered
in specific work situations, deficiency of nutrients in the environment, and physical injury.
Internal (endogenous) causes include:
1. hereditary abnormalities (disorders inherited from one or both parents),
2. congenital diseases (disturbances in the development of a normal embryo),
3. allergies (hypersensitive reactions to substances in the environment),
4. endocrine disorders (generally either overfunctioning or underfunctioning of an endocrine gland),
5. circulatory disorders (diseases of the heart and blood vessels),
6. neoplasms, or tumors (masses of abnormally proliferating cells).
Degenerative diseases occur as a result of the natural aging of the body tissues. A wide range
of diseases are thought to be brought about by emotional stress, emotional disturbances - they are so-called
Most diseases are the result of an interaction between the body and the environment, i.e. they arise when both internal and external conditions are combined.
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