Skin - is a flexible membranous tissue (integument) that forms the external covering of the body,
it operates as a complex organ of numerous structures (sometimes called the integumentary system)
performing vital protective and metabolic functions.
- The skin makes up about 18% of an adult's weight and
- approximate total area of 1,5 – 2 m2
1 - melanocyte
2 - sebaceous gland
3 - muscle
4 - hair shaft
5 - fat
6 - Pacinian corpuscle
7 - artery
8 - hair follicle
9 - sweat gland
10 - epidermis
11 - dermis
12 - subcutaneous tissue
The skin contains two main layers of cells: a thin outer layer, the epidermis, and a thicker inner layer immediately below, called the dermis.
Along the internal surface of the epidermis, young cells continuously multiply, pushing the older cells outward. At the outer surface the older
cells flatten and overlap to form a tough membrane and gradually shed as calluses or collections of dead skin. Hair and nails are evolutionary
adaptations of the epidermis.
Although the epidermis has no blood vessels, its deeper strata contain melanin, the pigment that gives color to the skin. The underlying
dermis consists of connective tissue with embedded blood vessels, lymph channels, nerve endings, sweat glands, fat cells, hair follicles,
muscles and oil glands that lubricate the skin and hair (glands located in the skin that secrete an oily substance, sebum – called sebaceous glands).
The nerve endings, called receptors, perform an important sensory function - responding to various stimuli, including touch, pressure, heat, and cold.
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